Halloween's wizards, goblins, ghosts we have got nothing to the Victorians, although we might get dark and weird about passing 1 day a year. Their comfort with passing proved to be a far cry from contemporary thoughts while individuals of the 1800s were extremely repressed about a lot of matters.

No where is this more apparent than in English grieving etiquette during Queen Victoria's rule (1837 to 1901). An extensive show of grieving that set the stage for the typical tradition to follow was brought in by the passing of her husband in 1861. What became accustomed grieving, by the criteria of today, looks morose and utterly macabre. Therefore in recognition of the forthcoming All Hallows' Event, when things change back and creepy -chilling, here's a review of the thing that was was after the standard that is ghoulish.

Postmortem portraits

Prior to 1839 pictures were decorated, but together with the creation of the photo, portraiture become accessible and more cost-effective. This meant the middle class can now manage to get their dead nearest and dearest, in other words -- images taken to remember their family members, and especially babies and youngsters. Together with the creation of the carte de visite at the center of the millennium arrived several images to ensure households can share images of the dead kids with friends and additional relatives. It makes sense; even though the exercise appears to be completely taboo in modern American lifestyle since many kids wouldn't have had their pictures taken prior to their early deaths.

The living dead

Considering that the concept of post-mortem photographs was to have at least something to remember the dead person by, there is frequently post and holding - work carried out to attain the impact of existence. Physiques were introduced in realistic positions, surrounded by family, kids keeping favourite playthings, and eyes often propped available. Occasionally, students were decorated on in the studio and flushed cheekbones were put into the picture of the human remains.

Coal for jewelry

The substance most valued to reveal despair was lignite, also known a type of coal, as jet. Aircraft is somber, dark and strong. In the initial stage of grieving, aircraft jewellery was the sole decoration girls were permitted to use.

Wearing the hair of the dead

You can put on an item of jewellery if it included, or was created of, hair, while girls were just supposed to use plane for the initial phase, through the second period of grieving. That might be hair that is human. That might be human hair obtained from from your one that is deceased. Necklaces Brooches, bands, chains were made from hair; occasionally there was only a tad encased in brooch or a useless group instances, the hair was designed right into a section of its.

Cloaked in heavy veils and bonnets

A widow was to put on a hood of a veil as well as large crepe to protect the encounter for the initial 90 days. By the end of 90 days the veil was to be used in the trunk of the hood for yet another eight weeks. Totally, even though widows selected to avoid colour eternally limited grieving attire was to be used to get at least two years.

Haunted houses

All the showcases in the home were to be covered once an associate of the household died. In case a reflection shattered and in the residence dropped, it had been believed that somebody in the residence would expire shortly. The time was to be halted in the hour of departure, when somebody died in your house or ill luck might occur. When a physique was taken out of your house, it needed to be obtained headfirst so that it cannot beckon other people to follow.

Saved by the bell

Phoning Allen Poe. Maybe not actually a custom that is grieving, however a great indication of the the changing times: alerts that are Coffin. The worry of being buried alive was so intense that the device called a alarm was devised. The device was just a bell attached using a a series that linked into a band put on the hand of the human remains to the headstone. (Provides the phrase "dead-ringer" a completely new significance.)

Scan Those Important Photos and Don't Lose Them

The website http://photoscanningsoftwarereview.com was amazingly helpful to me. I know you are saying why is a website that talks about photo scanning software helpful, well it was when I started my genealogy search. See I was adopted and never really felt connected to a lot of my family. That is until I started looking at these old photos of my mother's family. My mother's parents, my grandparents had moved to the United States from Germany. There was a whole side of my family I knew very little about. So I decided to make in my mission in life to find out more about them. I started contacting friends and family members to see what everyone knew.

My Aunts and Uncles had lots of old photos that I wanted to make copies of, but the paper was old and I was too afraid that they would be damaged if I just sent them to the local photo shop to be copied. I knew the best way to save those memories would be to scan the pictures and the newspaper articles myself into my computer. Then I would have them for myself and the family member would still have their treasured memories.I was so excited to find your website because I was able to read honest reviews of the photo scanning software. Not all were great, but I felt they were honest. I decided to give the software a shot. Who know just doing a little research into my family's history would make me feel close to them. I found out my grandmother was a lot like me. She loved to cook and she was very happy being a Mom. I know one day when I have a daughter I hope to be just like her and my mother, and we will all have our little place in history together as a family.

Summer Dress (replica of an 1870's dress, which we also own)
The truly amusing thing about that picture is the fact that I'd never-seen or heard about the Arrangement in Dark and White in Whistler till I went in the Gallery right into an area and came face to face having a life sized portrait of a girl wearing my gown! To, by absolute possibility, locate a manifestation of one in clothing therefore noticeably comparable to my very own was too ideal of an image possibility to let slide by; although I never deliberately mimic celebrities. This gown is an extremely close duplicate that I created of a Victorian clothing that's also in our group. The authentic clothing days in the 1870's; Gabriel located it through an internet vendor and offered it to me for Xmas last yr (2009). Sadly, the gown that is authentic will not suit me: it's too little, and too large in the midsection in the chest. Thus, my need to create a copy. (Additionally, we preserve our actual vintage clothes for demonstrations and specific occasions. Having a a duplicate, I am comfortable wearing it every day. It's become my favourite hot weather gown, and I Have used it almost every day-this summer.) The authentic as well as the duplicate are made from white cotton yard (the unique has some foxing on it thanks to the intense age), cut with white cotton eyelet. (I had been fortunate enough to locate lots of vintage buttons on the market, a few that fit the first switches just.) Due to the long-sleeves and long dress, a lot of people anticipate it to not be cold. The reality, however, is that it's in fact much cooler when compared to a dress that is smaller. The slim cotton yard was created to allow in the slightest wind and, being an entirely natural substance, is a lot more breathable than synthetics that were contemporary. By maintaining the sun in once, it offers ultraviolet protection. The white colour displays some of sunshine (compared to coloured materials, which consume the warmth), as well as the substance it self functions as a bodily colour.
Petticoats (actually, "little jackets," from middle English) were worn underneath the primary top to load it out, along with to supply heat. In cold areas, girls would frequently use petticoats of wool or cotton all through freezing climate. (Wearing among those is fairly similar in sense to being wrapped-up in a comfy blanket throughout the day.) Better petticoats could be manufactured from silk or wool. These can vary from the practical (strong white cotton, even though also these tended to get lace trimming) to the elaborate (colorful silk taffeta.) The 1890's, particularly, noticed a surge in recognition for bright, striped cotton petticoats. The appear as a girl handed by was regarded as a lot more inciteful, although very attractive, these produced were the bright flashes of colour when she raised her skirts to rise a staircase or install a buggy, they revealed. I consider myself fairly fortunate to have got among the magnificent 1890's cotton petticoats (via digital means) with an antiques dealer in Britain. Because it's watered silk, it didn't endure exactly the same compound corrosion which blights many Victorian era cotton, and is in unusually good shape. This is an item that is beautiful, and that I really like showing off it . (Photo below due to Evelyn Greenberg) 1860s Men's Linen Dress Suit A pretty heavyweight wool mix, this eco-friendly three piece has a fantastic, if perhaps apocryphal, provenance. From whom it was bought the classic seller said that an itinerant preacher in Eire initially possessed it in the decades after the Potato Famine. The hefty allweather pounds of the match, in addition to the feature mixture of wool and linen, the golden cotton liner adorned with shamrocks slope us to add some support to the story. Nevertheless, certain additional characteristics suggest otherwise: preachers nearly completely wore dark (also in Eire), as well as their suits generally had large collars and single-breasted fastenings in place of the peaked collar and double breasted design of the match. Without firm evidence, it's not possible to know for certain - but it it is interesting theorize and to analyze. In minimum, this story, whether true or fictitious, has become a part of the annals of the match.   Plaids were greatly in vogue in the 1890s, a happening which immediately entered the Ocean began in Uk and, like several trends. This top, made from a wool-cotton mix, was initially designed to accompany a matching bodice, that was possibly after partly deconstructed, or never finished. As trends in bodices can transform with relative rapidity the latter is the much more likely possibility, also it had been typical to take an article that was no longer hip apart, and rework it in to some thing more in fashion. Black-Velvet Cape with Horse-hair Trim The cpe is an amazingly well preserved section in state that is wonderful. It dates in the 1890's, and is cut with horse fur that is actual, and covered with red cotton- . Miniature pockets that are inner enable the person to to keep it shut against a stiff wind for heat.   The Tea Gown of 1890 In the victorian-era, the phrase "gown" officially denoted a two piece outfit, where the bodice was independent in the skirt. (This allowed for better simplicity in appropriate, building, and treatment of the dress.) A-one-bit component like this one (shown above) would more correctly be called a "dress," or a "wrapper," even though true there was a specific amount of laxity in the conditions.
Corset Covers and Pantelets
A protect significantly resembles a chemise that is contemporary, the chief distinction being the corset protect may usually involve some kind of tie to draw it flat in the waistline particularly from the body,. These were were usually built of cotton, often with handmade lace building the the band, and served two primary features. The very first of these was thoroughly practical: the cover protected the fine fabric of the bodice from tearing or snagging on the clasps of the corset. The 2nd function of the protect that is corset was mo-Re tasteful in character: the outlines of the corset dampened. (The contemporary equivalent of the approach could be viewed in innumerable twentieth and twenty first century moms hissing at their adolescent children, "Your bra-strap is showing!" The outfit identified to contemporary girls as drawers, or "panties," failed to exist in the victorian-era. Pantelets, or "cracked bloomers" as they'd later be called, were split down the center, leaving the crotch region open and enabling women to urinate standing erect, the same as their men brethren. The organization was not incredibly inconvenient, for it enabled girls to make use of sanitary services of any type without eliminating any clothes whatsoever. (Anybody that has spent moment waiting inline in a contemporary girls' rest-room may testify to the bothersome delay triggered to contemporary girls by the requirement of fumbling through levels of panties, pants, and panty hose, hauling every one successively to the floor before alleviation may eventually be got. Within my own, personal modest view, womankind required a huge step back when quit this wonderfully useful dress.) Our group contains a few sets of pantelets, basically several corset addresses. Some are tough cotton broadcloth, intended to be useful and long lasting. As cotton frequently does the first cotton bows broken. The pieces were kept by me, however, the bows revealed here are contemporary substitutes.
The Victorian Wedding - Part Two The Ceremony and Reception
Before the s, law needed a few to possess a morning service. In the Eastern U.s., the hip hrs were between 10:00 a.m. and Mid-Day because it had been a British custom. Southern American weddings, nevertheless, were nearly constantly at 6:00 p.m. as it had been cooler then. The Service The wedding ceremony service required location both in the home or in church, with few or many invitees. In cathedral, nuptials were nearly always used in the 1850s, also it had been traditional to work with the bride's parish. The parish and clergyman worker were in work. Her maiden title was signed by the bride. Blooms adorned the chapel, the organizations developing more sophisticated as the decades wore on-- from hands to festoons of flowers and evergreens. One usher was generally in control of issues at cathedral, while the others travelled for his or her party favors to the bride's home. In Britain, the bride-to-be trapped party favors on the mens' shoulders of white lace, flowers, thread leaves. In The United States, boutonnieres were worn by mens within their lapels. After in the age, horses and also the servants donned blooms. The servants' party favors contained a special souvenir if she had known them from childhood and were handcrafted by the bride. Invitees in grieving concealed between the the group and joined the chapel gently, whilst to not cast aspersions that were negative about the few. In Britain, a nation bride-to-be and her wedding celebration went on a carpet of flowers to chapel in order to guarantee a joyful path through lifestyle. For the more wealthy, a gray horse pulling at the wedding buggy was regarded good fortune. Cathedral bells pealed out as the couple joined the chapel, not just to make the public aware of the service happening, but in addition to frighten away any evil powers hiding near-by. The marriage ring was generally a simple gold band using the day of the wedding etched in as well as the initials of the couple. There have been few double-ring services in the victorian-era. It had been considered good fortune for the band to drop throughout the service, so all bad spirits were shaken out. Following the service, the wedding couple went away without looking right or left. It had been considered poor style to recognize colleagues and friends. The bride-to-be parents were the very first to abandon the chapel, as well as the greatest guy the final after the clergyman was compensated by him because of his solutions. From a custom when nuts were tossed following the making couple dating back to Roman times, the training continued, however symbolic of virility, in the shape of of grain, hemp or bird seed. The marriage carriage expecting bridegroom and the bride was pulled by four horses. In the event the service was at residence, (as was well-known in the 1890s) the ornaments were no less complex. Another colour in line with the motif, and an abundance of white, abounded in the bride-to-be house, decorating fireplaces windows and doors. In The United States, an all the best image was hung within the area where their vows were exchanged by the couple. This is actually a another great luck image, dove or a bell. The Reception Because the first hr for nuptials, the reception was usually a morning meal of. It had been an English custom to really have a Midday service with all the morning meal half an hour after at the bride's house. There, the few acquired congrats that were approved and the invitees. In the Eastern U.s., they copied the British in their own services. In the West, the East Nyc and Celtics Culture was resembled by them. For getting her guests, a unique and elaborately adorned part was allowed in the bride's house. The few was congratulated by the parents first, then stood near-by. Manners ordered that the bride-to-be is addressed by invitees unless they were merely familiar with all the bridegroom, where circumstance the bridegroom was congratulated by them and were subsequently launched to the bride-to-be. As it had been suggested the honour was conferred up on her in wedding the bridegroom the bride was never congratulated. Even though the marriage ceremony was offered sitting invitees were offered position. In the event the home was not small or the climate pleasant enough, tables may be established for the invitees. Unless it turned out to be a luxurious night event, at which moment there was dance there is no amusement in the marriage. It had been realized that no amusement was wanted by the invitees the honour arrived in attending the wedding it self. In early times, there were generally three wedding desserts--one dessert that is complex, and two smaller ones for the groom and bride. As they left the dessert was cut and packaged and offered to guests. Usually the wedding-cake proved to be a dark, rich fruitcake with elaborate white frostings of scrolls, fruit flowers, etc.. Groom's cakes and the bride are not as complex. Hers was his dark, white dessert. As there were attendants, it had been cut into as many bits and generally party favors were cooked indoors for fortune. Each appeal had its own significance.

The ring for marriage within a year; The penny for wealth, my dear; The thimble for an old maid or bachelor born; The button for sweethearts all forlorn.

  As the bridesmaids didn't need to soil their mitts trying to find the party favor this custom perished apart using the millennium. The Honeymoon The bridal couple generally left following the wedding break fast for their vacation. When marriages were by capture, perhaps not by-choice the honey moon began with early guy. The guy carried away his bride-to-be to some solution area where family members or her parents could not locate her. While the moon had all its stages-about 30-days-they drank a brew created from honey and mead and hid from people. Therefore, the phrase, vacation. The honeymoon has become regarded a moment to unwind. In the early 1800s, it was usual for the bride-to-be to consider along a lady company on the vacation. A traveling gown, which might have been her bridal gown was worn by the bride, particularly if the marriage had been a romantic event with friends and few family, otherwise these were were touring by machine or train right following the reception. Colours for the gown were getting and useful--brownish or dark for middle-Victorian. But whatever she selected, the bride was counseled to not wear some thing noticeably fresh out of regard to the empathy of her husband who mightn't need visitors to understand he was only wedded. If transforming to the outfits that are touring, the groom and bride did so right following the cake was cut. Bridesmaids travelled together with the bride-to-be to assist her, where moment she offered them each a a flower. From time the couple was able to abandon, just family and close friends were not absent. It was considered good fortune forever if your slipper arrived in the buggy. If it turned out to be most of the higher, a remaining slipper. The greatest man beat the few to machine or the train to take care of their bags. Where groom and the bride were heading no one inquired. It was poor style. Just the finest man understood. Lastly, from their journeys up on their return, one custom that was closing demanded the bridegroom take the bride over the threshold for their home that was fresh. This may make sure that the bride-to-be didn't fall, which will provide misfortune. As you are able to observe, Victorian conventions were steeped in age-old and superstitions practices, a few that we nonetheless follow although maybe not always in concern with bad spirits.
The Victorian Wedding - Part One - Preparation
The Day is here, the main occasion in a woman lifestyle. It's the evening she has been prepared by her mom for as soon as she was created. No other dream was known by the woman. She'd wed, and she'd marry nicely. The Day identifying The events leading to the service as well as the wedding itself are steeped in Victorian practices in ancient traditions nevertheless apparent. She'd deliver well-being and success . Functionality played a role in this sense also. If wed in June, the bride was not unlikely to delivery her first kid in Springtime, letting her plenty of time to recuperate prior to the autumn crop. Jun. also signified the coming of warmer climate as well as the end-of Given. That designed it was time participate in your yearly bathtub and to get rid of cold weather clothes. November, April and Dec were preferred additionally, in order to not conflict with plantation function weeks that were top. Oct was a good month, signifying a plentiful crop. Might, nevertheless, was considered ill-fated. "Wed in-May and rue the evening," an outdated saying goes. In the United Sates, April was preferred, a bride-to-be favourite blossoms were in bloom, as well as as it had been more cold -- camellia and jasmine. Brides were just like irrational about times of the week. A favorite rhyme goes:  

Marry on Monday for health, Tuesday for wealth, Wednesday the best day of all, Thursday for crosses, Friday for losses, and Saturday for no luck at all.

    The evening was impossible. The Marriage Outfit A choice conferred upon her from the bridegroom when the bride-to-be picked her big day, she can start organizing the main piece that was her bridal gown, her trousseau. Brides have black for the wedding ceremony service. Like in the 16 th, women inside their teenagers wed an indicator of virility, in light green. A brown gown was worn by a woman in her twenties, and girls that were old actually used dark. From early times to the 1700s, just poorer brides arrived for their wedding wearing white--a public declaration that she brought nothing to the the wedding with her. Additional brides donned their Sunday - best. Colour of the dress was believed to affect the potential existence of one.  

White--chosen right Blue--love will be true Yellow--ashamed of her fellow Red--wish herself dead Black--wish herself back Grey--travel far away Pink--of you he'll always think Green-ashamed to be seen

    The first Victorian wedding gown had an equipped bodice, little waist, and full-skirt (over hoops and petticoats.) It had been made from cashmere, tulle, lace cotton or organdy. The veil proved to be lace, gauzy cotton or an excellent gauze. The acceptable expense of a wedding dress in 1850 was $500, in accordance with Godey 's. By 1861, just as much as $1500 if built with lace is price by more complex dresses. Proper weddings in this interval were not all black, including veils and the bridesmaids gowns. Veils were connected to typically fruit plants for carnations and the bride-to-be, a coronet of flowers or additional in-time blooms for the attendants. The bride-to-be add-ons included: hanky embroidered along with her maiden name initials quick white kid-gloves, cotton tights stitched the front up, and smooth sneakers adorned with ribbons or bows in the jeep. Linen or cambric gowns were generally chosen by the American bride-to-be of the 1850 s in various colours. As the gown was utilized afterwards for chapel and specific occasions few donned white. Several had a cozy, vibrant scarf in plaid or paisley which draped her shoulders in the marriage. The scarf was subsequently employed for social activities, baptisms and an additional quilt in winter. A wedding dress was not more valued than a cozy shawl. For the middle-Victorian bride-to-be (1870s) there was an emergence of middle income success, with it a show of the new riches. And when you could af-Ford a genuine, they were duplicated by one. Total court locomotives were now portion of the marriage outfit, as were two bodices, a hustle, refined elements and extended veils --a small one for the nuptials as well as a reduced one for unique events. The late Victorians (1890s) found the flurry vanish, a demi-train and big sleeves today in fashion. The gown will need to possess a-train, having a veil of exactly the same span in the event the bride-to-be wed in church. The veil might be cotton or lace tulle. In the middle-victorian-era to the 1890s, the bride's face was protected by the veil and wasn't raised until after chapel. The veil had not been employed subsequent to the nuptials anymore as a scarf, yet. White kid-gloves had a slit in a single finger to ease the band on without removing the glove, and were long enough to tuck underneath the sleeves. Slippers were of brocade, silk or white child and also one-inch was risen to by the pumps. For the widow who re-married in the early and mid-Victorian ages, she failed to use whitened, really had no bridesmaids, no veil with no fruit flowers, (an indication of innocence.) She generally used rose silk dress or a bead trimmed with feathers. In the years that were later, she was permitted attendants along with no veil or fruit flowers, although webpages. She can put on 2 or a color from white, favoring increased, purple or fish. As jewellery, gemstones will always be well-known for. Gemstone and gem blends were hip when whitened dresses were in fashion. The middle-Victorians had a show of riches, usually a tiara for the service. Mix items of diamonds which could be split after as personal items were not unpopular. Usually, the jewellery worn by the bride-to-be was a present from her husband. The earlier the nuptials, the jewellery that is less. Some thing old was frequently the bride-to-be connection with all the past as well as a household treasure. Some thing fresh can be a present in the bridegroom or her gown. Something borrowed came back to the possessor, and was of actual worth just like a veil or head-piece. Blue was frequently an embroidered handkerchief or the garter. While potential riches was guaranteed by the six-pence, the contact of blue represented loyalty. A Bridegroom Apparel The bridegrooms, considered mags for suggestions about on the best way to to be ended up, and also, were worried about trend on their wedding. In the first victorian-era, the bride groom wore a dress coat of mulberry, blue or claret . By 1865, men's jackets were personalized using a unique "bloom-gap" for this function. His waistcoat was not black, along with his pants of rose doeskin. Dark was impossible. Groomsmen and the greatest man wore frock-coats additionally, in a a tone that was more muted. The American bridegroom donned a flower to the lapel of his fit that was finest . From the middle-victorian-era, frock-coats were rarely used, the layer being preferable due to its look that was wiser. Some bridegrooms still used frock-coats, nevertheless, and did so using a jacket of rose mitts sewn in black, dark grey slacks, a flattened cravat of moderate colour, and black fabric. Trends transformed quickly into a should for mitts in 1886, from no requirement for mitts in 1885, in the late years. Chances are, nevertheless, guys used pearl coloured gloves with dark embroidery. The dress coat was straight back as well as a double breasted, light colored waistcoat, darkish link, grey striped cashmere pants, patent leather button boots and light bronze kid-gloves in-style. Through the victorian-era, a black-top cap was essential. From the conclusion of the victorian-era, boutonnieres were not small --a couple of stephanotis or lilies sprig. In the event British legislation at night, as now permitted the wedding, full-dress tailcoats were in purchase, with whitened waistcoat and white gloves. The father of the bride-to-be in line with the period of evening for the nuptials, and outfitted like the groom and groomsmen. Attendants, Family and Kids Dresses for the bridesmaids needed to be both lovely and useful, for they became an integral part of your ex attire following the service. The gowns were supplied by some brides that were nice for his or her attendants. Throughout the first years that are Victorian, dresses bodices miniature and were complete. Convention needed an all-white wedding, in the event the overall outcome stayed whitened, but colour may be used for an emphasis. Their heads were protected by bridesmaids with quick white veils falling to only below the cool from a coronet. Nuptials at house failed to need a veil head-pieces of ribbons and blossoms were worn. White was not the colour, but was nevertheless used at some nuptials, frequently in mixture with a different colour. Sleeves that are big were instyle, highlighting the shoulders. Gray, while Americans favored white, lilac and purple were well-known in England, green or flower. By 1898, trend ordered the bridesmaids' dresses be in-direct comparison to the bride-to-be, in order to not distract from the wonder of her dress. That custom continues to be used now. Kids had their particular clothing manners and were a representational element of the wedding. Girls that are little can be ring-bearers or flower-girls. They they may be jr bridesmaids or maids of recognition, if old. Aside from their job, their gowns were of white muslin tied using a bow sash that fit tights and their shoes. The gowns were both short or long based upon ages and the prevalent fashions of girls. The lads had of keeping the bride's train, the significant function. They outfitted as courtroom webpages in quick pants, velvet coats and round linen collars attached by big bows of white crepe de chine. Their sneakers were dark, unless it turned out to be a proper wedding, where circumstance they buckles on their shoes, and donned white cotton hose. Their fits may be green, blue, dark or reddish, using a matching cap, that has been not obligatory. The cap was eliminated to get a chapel service. Social traditions ordered what female guests and the moms used, also, the distinction refined however current. In a wedding that was day-time, guests used seeing or walking outfits. The mummies, and other members of the family that were female, used toilettes, being less proper, although more refined than day outfits than evening gown. All girls needed to use bonnets in chapel, however these were were elective for athome services. Bonnets weren't used for night receptions. As a suitable colour for the mother-of the bride-to-be, dark was proposed in the late victorian-era. They were never manufactured from black crepe, nevertheless, which signified grieving. In case the caretaker was in mourning, she can put her crepe aside and use pink velvet or cotton in The United States, or cardinal-red in Britain. Queen Victoria, mom number at several weddings, always used black and whitened because she was in mourning on her "most beloved Albert." Everybody curled and is eventually primped. Now is the really time for the service to begin!
(Visited 2,527 times, 2 visits today)